Vigourexplore our theme

Lizards are estimated to have been around for 240 million years. Little wonder, given that they make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, camouflage, reflex bleeding and the ability to sacrifice and regrow their tails. What’s more, as with other reptiles, the skin of lizards is covered in overlapping scales made of keratin, providing protection from the environment and reducing water loss through evaporation. This characteristic enables them to thrive in some of the driest deserts on earth.

Vigour, strength and adaptability have ensured lizards’ ability to thrive over the course of time.

So, too, at Sappi, our commitment to growing our business and maintaining a healthy balance sheet, has sustained us for almost 90 years. We are vigorous in our commitment to deliver on our Thrive strategy, including by reducing exposure to graphic paper markets while investing for growth in our target markets and capitalising on our leadership position in pulp supply to the lyocell market.

Evolveexplore our theme

Very little in nature is static – everything is constantly changing and evolving. One miraculous example of this is the metamorphosis of the egg, the caterpillar (larva) and the chrysalis (pupa) into the adult butterfly. This process embodies fresh ideas, renewal and unexpected outcomes.

The caterpillar’s new form as a butterfly opens new horizons, but also new risks, particularly in the form of climate change. Butterflies are particularly sensitive to environmental changes like climatic shifts. That is because they are strictly adapted to certain environmental conditions and their development depends on certain larval food plants and specific microhabitat structures.

In Sappi’s case, climate change presents both risks and opportunities. We are addressing short- and long-term physical and transitional climate risks identified through processes outlined by the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) to build resilience. In addition, we are determined, as a socially responsible business, to play our part in ensuring a just transition in South Africa as the country faces the reality of reducing its dependence on coal.

We are also determined to accelerate our science-based decarbonisation trajectory which we see as an opportunity to future-proof our business. So too, are the opportunities presented by evolving customer needs and legislation – notably growing demand for sustainable packaging, based on low-carbon impact, together with demand for more sustainable textile fibres.

We cannot achieve our vision of a thriving world without an evolving response to climate change. By collaborating with a broad range of stakeholders we are working to achieve energy security and climate resilience and transform our vision into reality.

Postureexplore our theme

Beauty and confidence. Pride and upright posture. These attributes have meant that many cultures over the ages have associated peacocks with royalty and power.

This image is appropriate to Sappi because we too, can stand tall with pride when we consider our past achievements and drive to create not just enterprise value, but value for our people and for communities.

We have achieved enterprise value through our ability to be nimble and optimise profitability in ever-changing markets, reshaping our products and processes to create value and growth for our own business and our customers. We continue to offer our customers a broad range of solutions based on the power of renewable resources that enable them to achieve their sustainability goals and contribute to the low-carbon, circular economy. In doing so, we have continued to focus on treading more lightly on the Planet.

Creating value for our people and communities is underpinned by the structures and programmes we have established which facilitate open, authentic communication, by our ongoing investment in training, development and transformative community programmes, as well as by our collaborative partnerships focused on workable solutions to industry challenges.

Our commitment to delivering sustainable value to our stakeholders is based on our focus on living our values at all times: At Sappi we do business safely with integrity and courage, making smart decisions which we execute with speed.

Diving deeper into our,
performance and prospects

Fortifyexplore our theme

Hermit crabs are shapeshifters, moulting as they grow, continually shedding their exoskeletons and growing new ones. As their exoskeletons are fragile, they need shells for protection. Rather than produce their own shell, as they grow, they use shells abandoned by other marine creatures. This process is not a one-off, but continues throughout their lifespan, depending on water temperature, habitat and species.

Many species will enhance their chances of survival by encouraging anemones to attach to their shell, as the latter’s stinging tentacles may deter predators. The crabs even transfer the anemones from shell to shell when they move house.

We can draw parallels with Sappi, fortified as we are by our iterative Thrive strategy and by our agility in responding to changes in our operating context to emerge stronger and better positioned for growth. This process is underpinned by ongoing engagement with our stakeholders, whose input helps us shape our response to our environment as we collaborate to build a thriving world.

Balanceexplore our theme

Bubbles are things of fragility, wonder – and balance. That’s because the inward surface tension forces of the water film are exactly balanced by the outward-pushing pressure of the air inside.

Blowing more air in to make a bigger bubble means more air pressure inside and also means the bubble must get thinner in the process, because there is only so much water to go around. Should one keep blowing more air in, the film eventually won’t have enough reserve water to spread out into a bigger surface, and the ultimate catastrophe occurs: the bubble bursts.

The success of Sappi’s business is also based on balance. This includes continuous capital prioritisation as we look to reduce costs and grow the business while sustaining a healthy balance sheet. It involves reshaping our product portfolio to meet changing market needs and taking advantage of growth opportunities while being mindful of the risks. It means balancing the needs of people and communities with our responsibility to our shareholders.

As we move forward into the future, we know we can rely on the expertise and passion of our people and the ongoing cooperation of our stakeholders to maintain this balance and drive sustainable value creation.

Connectexplore our theme

Some mushrooms are bioluminescent, due to luciferins, the same compounds that make fireflies light up at night. This ability is used to attract insects which then spread the mushroom spores elsewhere in the forest, allowing the fungi to reproduce.

But that’s not where connection ends. Beneath every forest and wood lies a complex network of roots and fungi that connects trees and plants to one another. This network – sometimes called the Wood Wide Web – is almost 500 million years old and is vital for most plants on earth. Trees and plants obtain nutrients that the fungi acquire from the soil, such as nitrogen and phosphorus by means of enzymes that the trees do not possess. In return, the fungi receive carbon-rich sugar from the roots of the trees.

This symbiotic relationship enables all connected organisms to thrive.

Similarly, at Sappi our connection with our stakeholders shapes our work to build a thriving world. This connection enables us to meet the changing needs of every employee at Sappi and to offer our partners the renewable innovation they need to be successful. By understanding and connecting with community needs, we drive positive social impact, playing a role beyond making and selling.

Like mushrooms, our business is a living organism – growing, adapting and evolving in a continually shifting context. As we shape our response to this context, we prioritise value creation for all stakeholders.



General definitions

AGM – Annual General Meeting.

AF&PA – American Forest and Paper Association.

air dry tons (ADT) – Meaning dry solids content of 90% and moisture content of 10%.

ACR – Audit and Risk Committee.

BBBEE – Broad-based black economic empowerment.

BCTMP – Bleached Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulp.

biochemicals – Enzymes, hormones, pheromones etc, which either occur naturally or are manufactured to be identical to naturally occurring substances. Biochemicals have many environment-friendly applications, such as natural pesticides that work in non-lethal ways as repellents or by disrupting the mating patterns of the pests.

biofuels – Organic material such as wood, waste and alcohol fuels, as well as gaseous and liquid fuels produced from these feedstocks.

biomaterials – New developments in wood processing support the move to a biobased economy that utilises materials that are renewable and biodegradable and in the case of wood feedstocks do not compete with food sources.

black liquor – The spent cooking liquor from the pulping process which arises when pulpwood is cooked in a digester thereby removing lignin, and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibres. The resulting black liquor is an aqueous solution of lignin residues and the inorganic chemicals used in the pulping process. Black liquor contains slightly more than half of the energy content of the wood fed into the digester.

bleached pulp – Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives to make it suitable for higher brightness fine paper production.

board – Board of directors.

CAC – Control and Assurance Committee.

CDP – formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project.

casting and release paper – Embossed paper used to impart texture in polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride plastic films for the production of synthetic leather and other textured surfaces.

CAW – Combined Assurance Workgroup.

CEO – Chief Executive Officer.

CEPI – Confederation of European Paper Industries.

CFO – Chief Financial Officer.

Cham Paper Group Holding AG (CPG) – Speciality paper business acquired by Sappi, which included CPG’s Carmignano and Condino Mills (Italy) and its digital imaging business located in Cham (Switzerland) as well as all brands and know-how.

chemical oxygen demand (COD) – The amount of oxygen required to break down the organic compounds in effluent.

chemical pulp – A generic term for pulp made from woodfibre that has been produced in a chemical process.

CHP – Combined heat and power.

coated mechanical paper (CM) – Coated paper made from groundwood pulp which has been produced in a mechanical process, primarily used for magazines, catalogues and advertising material.

coated paper – Papers that contain a layer of coating material on one or both sides. The coating consisting of pigments and binders, acts as a filler to improve the printing surface of the paper.

coated woodfree paper (CWF) – Coated paper made from chemical pulp which is made from woodfibre that has been produced in a chemical process, primarily used for high-end publications and advertising material.

COP26 – The 26th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26), that took place in Glasgow, Scotland in November 2021.

COP27 – The 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27), that took place in the Egyptian city of Sharm el-Sheikh in November 2022.

COP28 – The 28th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP28), that took place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) in November/December 2023.

corrugating medium – Paperboard made from chemical and semi-chemical pulp, or waste paper, that is to be converted to a corrugated board by passing it through corrugating cylinders. Corrugating medium between layers of linerboard form the board from which corrugated boxes are produced.

CSI and CSR – Corporate social investment and corporate social responsibility.

CSV – Corporate shared value involves developing profitable business strategies that deliver tangible social benefits.

dissolving pulp (DP) – Highly purified chemical pulp derived primarily from wood and in some instances cotton linters, intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spun fibre and filament.

DP market price – Market price for imported hardwood dissolving pulp into China issued daily by the CCF Group.

EIA – Environmental impact assessment.

ESG – Environmental, social and corporate governance.

Eskom – Eskom is the South African national electricity public utility.

energy – Is present in many forms such as solar, mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical. Any source of energy can be tapped to perform work. In power plants, coal is burned and its chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. To generate steam, coal and other fossil fuels are burned, thus converting stored chemical energy into thermal energy.

EUDR – EU Deforestation Regulation.

fibre – Fibre is generally referred to as pulp in the paper industry. Wood is treated chemically or mechanically to separate the fibres during the pulping process.

fine paper – Paper usually produced from chemical pulp for printing and writing purposes and consisting of coated and uncoated paper.

FMCG – Fast-moving consumer goods. Examples include non-durable goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, over-the-counter medicines and many other consumables.

FSA – Forestry South Africa.

FSG – Forest Solutions Group.

Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) – A global, not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of responsible forest management worldwide. (FSC-C015022) (

full-time equivalent employee – The number of total hours worked divided by the maximum number of compensable hours in a full-time schedule as defined by law.

graphic papers – A generic term for a group of papers intended for commercial printing use such as coated woodfree, coated mechanical, uncoated woodfree and newsprint.

greenhouse gases (GHG) – The GHGs included in the Kyoto Protocol are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.

GRMT – Group Risk Management Team.

GSDC – Group Sustainable Development Council.

hemicellulose sugars – The biorefinery process for second-generation hemicellulose sugars involves recovering them from the prehydolysate liquor, and then separating them mostly from lignin.

high-yield pulp (HYP) – Pulp that has a higher yield from wood logs than pure chemical pulps. High-yield pulp is processed either through mechanical processes or combined mechanical chemical processes such as Matane high-yield bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP).

HR – Human Resources.

ISO – The International Organisation for Standardisation.

IT – Information technology.

JSE Limited – The main securities exchange in South Africa.

kraft paper – Packaging or other paper (bleached or unbleached) made from kraft pulp.

kraft pulp – Chemical wood pulp produced by digesting wood by means of the sulphate pulping process.

lignosulphonate – Lignosulphonate is a highly soluble lignin derivative and a product of the sulphite pulping process.

linerboard – The grade of paperboard used for the exterior facings of corrugated board. Linerboard is combined with corrugating medium by converters to produce corrugated board used in boxes.

liquor – White liquor is the aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide used to extract lignin during kraft pulping. Black liquor is the resultant combination of lignin, water and chemicals.

lost-time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) – Number of lost-time injuries x 200,000 divided by man hours.

lost-time injury severity rate (LTISR) – Number of days lost x 200,000/actual man hours.

LTSIP – Long-term share incentive plan.

managed forest – Naturally occurring forests that are harvested commercially.

mechanical pulp – Pulp produced by means of the mechanical grinding or refining of wood or woodchips.

MIS – Management incentive scheme.

M&A – Mergers and acquisitions.

nanocellulose – Cellulose is the main component of plant stems, leaves and roots. Traditionally, its main commercial use was in producing paper and textiles. Nanocellulose is derived from further processing cellulose to a smaller size fraction or nano scale. These engineered celluloses open up opportunities for advanced, planet friendly solutions in place of environmentally harmful products.

natural/indigenous forest – Natural forests include old growth and primary forests as well as managed forests where most of the principal characteristics and key elements of native ecosystems such as complexity, structure, wildlife and biological diversity are present.

NBHK – Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft pulp. One of the varieties of market pulp, produced from hardwood trees (i.e., birch or aspen) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern United States of America.

NBSK – Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft pulp. One of the main varieties of market pulp, produced from coniferous trees (i.e., spruce, pine) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern United States of America. The price of NBSK is a benchmark widely used in the pulp and paper industry for comparative purposes.

NDC – Nationally Determined Contribution.

NED – Non-executive Director.

newsprint – Paper produced for the printing of newspapers mainly from mechanical pulp and/or recycled waste paper.

NGO – Non-governmental organisation.

NPO – Non-profit organisation.

OHSAS – An international health and safety standard.

OTC – Over-the-counter trading of shares.

packaging and speciality papers – A generic term for a group of papers intended for commercial and industrial use such as flexible packaging, label papers, functional papers, containerboard, paperboard, silicone base papers, casting and release papers, dye sublimation papers, inkjet papers and tissue paper.

packaging paper – Paper used for packaging purposes.

PAMSA – Paper Manufacturers' Association of South Africa.

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest CertificationTM(PEFCTM) – An international non-profit, NGO dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management (SFM) through independent third-party certification. PEFC works by endorsing national forest certification systems and is represented in 49 countries through national organisations such as SFI® in North America. ( ) plantation – Large scale planted forests, intensively managed, highly productive and grown primarily for wood and fibre production.

plantation – Large scale planted forests, intensively managed, highly productive and grown primarily for wood and fibre production.

PM – Paper machine.

power – The rate at which energy is used or produced.

PSP – Performance share plan.

pulpwood – Wood suitable for producing pulp – usually not of sufficient standard for sawmilling.

R&D – Research and development.

release paper – The backing paper for self-adhesive labels.

SAC – Sustainable Apparel Coalition.

sackkraft – Kraft paper used to produce multi-wall paper sacks.

Sappi Biotech – The business unit within Sappi which drives innovation and commercialisation of biomaterials and biochemicals.

Sappi Europe (SEU) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the European region.

Sappi Dissolving Pulp – The business unit within Sappi which oversees the production and marketing of DP.

Sappi North America (SNA) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the North American region.

Sappi Papier Holding (SPH) – Sappi's international holding company.

Sappi Southern Africa (SSA) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the Southern Africa region.

SBTi – The Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) is a partnership between CDP, the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC), World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The objective of SBTi is to drive ambitious climate action in the private sector by enabling companies to set science-based GHG emissions reduction targets. SBTi provides technical assistance and expert resources to companies who set science-based targets in line with the latest climate science and provides companies with independent assessment and validation of decarbonisation targets.

Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions – The Greenhouse Gas Protocol defines Scope 1 (direct) and Scope 2 (indirect) emissions as follows:

SDGs – see UN SDGs.

SETS – Social, ethics, transformation and sustainability.

silviculture costs – Growing and tending costs of trees in forestry operations.

solid waste – Dry organic and inorganic waste materials.

specific – When data is expressed in specific form, this means that the actual quantity consumed during the year indicated, whether energy, water, emissions or solid waste, is expressed in terms of a production parameter. For Sappi, as with other pulp and paper companies, this parameter is air dry tons of saleable product.

specific purchased energy – The term ‘specific’ indicates that the actual quantity during the year indicated, is expressed in terms of a production parameter. For Sappi, as with other pulp and paper companies, the parameter is air dry tons of product.

specific total energy (STE) – The energy intensity ratio defined by the total energy consumption in the context of the saleable production.

Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®) – Is a solutions-oriented sustainability organisation that collaborates on forest‑based conservation and community initiatives. The SFI forest management standard is the largest forestry certification standard within the PEFCTM programme. ( )

TCFD – Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures.

TNFD – Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures.

thermo-mechanical pulp – Pulp produced by processing woodfibres using heat and mechanical grinding or refining wood or woodchips.

ton – Metric ton of 1,000 kg.

total suspended solids (TSS) – Refers to matter suspended or dissolved in effluent.

tons per annum (tpa) – Term used in this report to denote tons per annum (tons a year). Capacity figures in this report denote tons per annum at maximum continuous run rate.

Transnet – Transnet is the state-owned South African rail, port and pipeline company.

uncoated woodfree paper – Printing and writing paper made from bleached chemical pulp used for general printing, photocopying and stationery, etc. Referred to as uncoated as it does not contain a layer of pigment to give it a coated surface.

United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) – A principle-based framework for businesses, stating 10 principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption.

UN SDGs – United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

Verve – Brand name for Sappi dissolving pulp.

viscose staple fibre (VSF) – A natural fibre made from purified cellulose, primarily from DP that can be twisted to form yarn.

WBCSD – World Business Council For Sustainable Development.

woodfree paper – Paper made from chemical pulp.

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) – The world’s largest conservation organisation, focused on supporting biological diversity.

General financial definitions

acquisition date – The date on which control in respect of subsidiaries, joint control in respect of joint arrangements and significant influence in associates commences.

associate – An entity over which the investor has significant influence.

basic earnings per share – Net profit for the year divided by the weighted average number of shares in issue during the year.

commissioning date – The date that an item of property, plant and equipment, whether acquired or constructed, is brought into use.

compound annual growth rate – The mean annual growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time longer than one year.

control – An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.

diluted earnings per share – Is calculated by assuming conversion or exercise of all potentially dilutive shares, share options and share awards unless these are anti-dilutive.

discount rate – This is the pre-tax interest rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of money for the purposes of determining discounted cash flows. In determining the cash flows the risks specific to the asset or liability are taken into account in determining those cash flows and are not included in determining the discount rate.

disposal date – The date on which control in respect of subsidiaries, joint arrangements and significant influence in associates ceases.

fair value – The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

financial results – Comprise the financial position (assets, liabilities and equity), results of operations (revenue and expenses) and cash flows of an entity and of the group.

foreign operation – An entity whose activities are based or conducted in a country or currency other than that of the reporting entity.

functional currency – The currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates.

group – The group comprises Sappi Limited, its subsidiaries and its interest in joint ventures and associates.

joint arrangement – Is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

joint venture – Is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

operating profit – A profit from business operations before deduction of net finance costs and taxes.

presentation currency – The currency in which the financial results of an entity are presented.

qualifying asset – An asset that necessarily takes a substantial period (normally in excess of six months) to get ready for its intended use.

recoverable amount – The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. In determining the value in use, expected future cash flows are discounted to their net present values using the discount rate.

related party – Parties are considered to be related if one party directly or indirectly has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions or is a member of the key management of Sappi Limited.

share-based payment – A transaction in which Sappi Limited issues shares or share options to group employees as compensation for services rendered.

significant influence – Is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of an entity but is not control or joint control of those policies.

Non-GAAP financial definitions

The group believes that it is useful to report certain non-GAAP measures for the following reasons:

These non-GAAP measures should not be considered in isolation or construed as a substitute for GAAP measures in accordance with IFRS.

asset turnover (times) – Sales divided by total assets.

average – Averages are calculated as the sum of the opening and closing balances for the relevant period divided by two.

black economic empowerment (BEE) charge – Represents the IFRS 2 non-cash charge associated with the BEE transaction implemented in 2010 in terms of BEE legislation in South Africa.

capital employed – Shareholders’ equity plus net debt.

cash interest cover – Cash generated by operations divided by finance costs less finance revenue.

CFRONA – Cash flow return on net assets.

current asset ratio – Current assets divided by current liabilities.

dividend yield – Dividends per share, which were declared after year-end, in US cents divided by the financial year-end closing prices on the JSE Limited converted to US cents using the closing financial year-end exchange rate.

earnings yield – Earnings per share divided by the financial year-end closing prices on the JSE Limited converted to US cents using the closing financial year-end exchange rate.

EBITDA excluding special items (EBITDA) – Earnings before interest (net finance costs), taxation, depreciation, amortisation and special items.

EPS excluding special items – Earnings per share excluding special items and certain once-off finance and tax items.

fellings – The amount charged against the income statement representing the standing value of the plantations harvested.

GAAP – Generally accepted accounting principles.

headline earnings – As defined in Circular 1/2019, issued by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants in March 2021, which separates from earnings all separately identifiable remeasurements. It is not necessarily a measure of sustainable earnings. It is a Listings Requirement of the JSE Limited to disclose headline earnings per share.

inventory turnover (times) – Cost of sales divided by inventory on hand at balance sheet date.

net assets – Total assets less total liabilities.

net asset value per share – Net assets divided by the number of shares in issue at balance sheet date.

net cash (utilised) generated – Cash flows from operating activities less cash flows from investing activities.

net debt – Current and non-current interest-bearing borrowings and lease liabilities, and bank overdraft (net of cash, cash equivalents and short-term deposits).

net debt to total capitalisation – Net debt divided by capital employed.

net operating assets – Total assets (excluding deferred taxation and cash and cash equivalents) less current liabilities (excluding interest-bearing borrowings, lease liabilities and overdraft).

ordinary dividend cover – Profit for the period divided by the ordinary dividend declared, multiplied by the actual number of shares in issue at year-end.

ordinary shareholders’ interest per share – Shareholders’ equity divided by the actual number of shares in issue at year-end.

price/earnings ratio – The financial year-end closing prices on the JSE Limited converted to US cents using the closing financial year-end exchange rate divided by earnings per share.

revolving credit facility (RCF) – A variable line of credit used by public and private businesses.

ROCE – Return on average capital employed. Operating profit excluding special items divided by average capital employed.

ROE – Return on average equity. Profit for the period divided by average shareholders’ equity.

RONOA – Return on average net operating assets. Operating profit excluding special items divided by average net operating assets.

SG&A – Selling, general and administrative expenses.

special items – Special items cover those items which management believe are material by nature or amount to the operating results and require separate disclosure. Such items would generally include profit or loss on disposal of property, investments and businesses, asset impairments, restructuring charges, non-recurring integration costs related to acquisitions, financial impacts of natural disasters, non-cash gains or losses on the price fair value adjustment of plantations and alternative fuel tax credits receivable in cash.

total market capitalisation – Ordinary number of shares in issue (excluding treasury shares held by the group) multiplied by the financial year-end closing prices on the JSE Limited converted to US cents using the closing financial year-end exchange rate.

TSR – Total Shareholder Return.

trade receivables days outstanding (including securitised balances) – Gross trade receivables, including receivables securitised, divided by sales multiplied by the number of days in the year.